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Varnishing the Body of a Stringed Instrument

Written by S. Van Dyck

A good violin, viola or cello varnish can play an important role in perfecting the sound quality of an instrument. The varnish applied by Stradivari to his violins is still believed by many to be the secret the their phenomenal sound. Whether oil or alcohol-based, violinmakers prize their varnish recipes as one of the most important elements of the violinmaking process.

Before applying any coatings to the instrument, the white wood can be given a tan by exposure to sunlight for a period of several days to several weeks. Aging the wood brings out the color and visual character of the wood through oxidation and ultraviolet light.

When the wood has received the desired look, the next stage is applying a -ground- coating. A violinmaker may prefer to apply a primer or sealer first. While also darkening and deepening the wood’s visual depth, the ground coating strengthens and protects the instrument even after the varnish has worn off. Many recipes for the ground coat exist and typically this is a tightly held secret.

Next, the instrument is ready to be varnished. Many recipes exist; most consist of sun-thickened oils such as linseed, lavender or walnut oil combined with oxidized resins such as amber, dammar, balsam and shellac. Alcohol can also be used as a part of or in addition to an oil base. The mixture is left to sit for up to a week, being stirred a few times a day until the lac no longer sits at the top. The mixture is then boiled, cooled and boiled again, then filtered for impurities.

Adding color to the varnish mixture can help to bring out darker, richer tones, if the varnish mixture is too light. Coloring agents, or -lakes,- include turmeric and saffron for a yellow tone. Sandalwood and pernambucco bring out a redder tone. The varnish is then applied in many coats depending upon the thickness and consistency of the varnish. The varnish is allowed to dry in the sun between coats. Touch ups can be added if there are areas needing additional coating. The instrument can then be lightly polished using a soft cloth with alcohol and mineral oil and or polished out using pumice powders.

The Musical Traditions And Instruments Of The Zulu

African music is the music of Africans who live in a large region of 50 nations, each with a special culture, history and language, South of Sahara. Zulu musical instruments are part of this multilingual culture. African music has some distinct characteristics: the use of repetition is one of them. Another important characteristic is the polyphony; this is the combination of different musical parts played simultaneously.

The history is marked by the awesome military strategies of the Zulu King Shaka. The King’s and his warriors’ campaign of expansion is well known in world history. Zulu rich traditional culture includes songs, dances and colorful rituals, Zulu musical instruments are spectacular and original. A variety of Zulu musical instruments are well known, s well as the traditional Mine dance; Zulus have longtime used their music as a cry for freedom.

African music is really rich in modes of expression: drum ensembles are using Zulu musical instruments from the percussion family. Each drummer uses special methods to produce sounds to distinguish his drum from the others. Iron bells are very popular Zulu musical instruments; they are used to produce a repeated sound to help the drummers to play at the correct time.

Zulu musical instruments, rare and very special
The akadinda is a king of xylophone; two groups of African musicians are playing simultaneously. The first group is playing repeatedly the same pattern; the second group plays to fill in the missing sounds. Groups of Zulu musicians play also using flutes, trumpets or xylophones. Each player plays a single note in a strange rotation with the other players. The result is a polyphonic piece, characteristic to African music.

Musical practices of South African people were observed from many years; Zulu musical instruments are obsolete. Venda mbila is an old Zulu musical instrument; it is not used anymore. Reed flutes, contrary, are still very popular. The influence of foreign cultures and civilizations causes many of old Zulu musical instruments to become obsolete.

Musical instruments such as tsonga – a horn, ingungu – a friction drum, nkoka – a drum, pedi – a flute, venda – musical bow and stick, deze and demba – thumb piano and resonatos, umfece – ankle rattles are almost obsolete.

To preserve this awesome heritage of Zulu musical instruments, the necessary information was entered into a database; each Zulu musical instrument was digitally photographed to preserve all information about it.

You Can Now Practice Yoga With The Delight Of Instrumental Music At Your Homes Only

In this modern world, music is considered as best friend for human being. It is believed that music provides relaxations as well as comforts to the human mind and his or her soul. Many doctors in addition to health experts believe that it is good for healing or curing any mental tension. In this world, there are many type ofmMusic. The famous forms are rock, jazz, classic and etcetera. Meditation Music is suitable for treatment of physical diseases. Doctors and other health consultant believe that mental stress can easily be cured by Meditation Music. Meditation is practiced by many famous personality of this world. People show their interest toward yoga so that they can reduce many of their health problems.

The Musical composition that is without lyrics as well as singing is referred as Instrumental Music. It is effective form of certain meditational music. Many artists mostly produce this form of music with help of different musical instruments with non-articulate instruments of vocals. It provides relaxation to the mind as well as the soul. According to the people, Morning is the most appropriate time for listening Instrumental Music. The cold along with calm atmosphere of the morning suits this kind of music. Ambient Music is another type of meditational music that provides comfort to the soul, body and mind. The magic behind the Ambient Music is of good rhythm.

When people get bored from their busy schedule and affected by the surroundings nearby them then most of them prefer to listen music that can provide relief to them instantly. Now a days Relaxing Music is in great demand. Relaxing Music serves as good alternatives that can stabilize human soul along with mind. People can be relaxed from all types of worries and mental tensions.

In earlier times it is believed that yoga is good for treatment of any disease and it has been proved by many researches that this believe of the people is correct. Individual needs to follow five effective principles for yoga that are quite simple and easy. There are several benefits that an individual can get from it such as physiological, psychological as well as spiritual. The people who practice yoga gain confidence and there is tremendous increase in their physical strength. Daily hard work is required if you want to get benefits from physical exercise. It has magical effects if performed with help of yoga music. People who suffer from the problem of the sleep can gain maximum benefits out of it.

About Shi Xinning – A Chinese Artist

Shi Xinning was born on 1969 in Liaoning Province, China. Trained in China, Shi Xinnings paintings are influenced by both social realism and European styles. Using the authoritative qualities of both, Shi embarks on history painting with a twist. Taking his imagery from iconic press photos, Shis canvases faithfully represent the world as we know it, the Yalta Conference in familiar 40s sepia tone, the Queen Mum in carriage emblazoned in newspaper black and white. Its only on second glance that Shis alterations become evident. Nestled between Churchill and FDR and conversing happily with royalty, Mao takes his place amongst the great leaders of the 20th century.
In China-fying history, Shi investigates dynamics of both the wests Eurocentric, and Chinas isolationist past world views. Humorously illustrating the Chairmans import and omnipresence in 20th c Chinese society Shis insertion of Mao into the fabric of western collective conscience seems entirely plausible. Infusing the totems of propaganda currency with a sense of normality and humility, Shi re-authors the most cherished moments of collective memory with a Forrest Gump effect, creating a specious mythology based in Hollywood schmaltz and unabashed optimism.

Selected Exhibitions:

2005
The Road Map of Painting, Beijing, China
The Other Shore of This Shore, Pingyao, China
Mahjong, Kunstmuseum, Bern, Switzerland
China Contemporary Painting, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio in Bologna, Bologna, Italy

2004
Landscapes, Shanghai Gallery of Art, Shanghai, China
New Perspectives in Chinese Painting, Marella Art Gallery, Milan, Italy
Chinas Photographic Painting, China Art Seasons Gallery, Beijing, China

2003
Moyemode, Moyemobude, 798 Art Zone, Beijing, China
China Art Now, Marella Art Gallery, Milan, Italy

2002
Contemporary Art Exhibition, Deduct Fabricate Copy, Beijing, China

2001
Fake Reality, Beijing, China

1999
Contemporary Art Show “Out-of-control”, Beijing, China

1998
Contemporary Art Exhibition, “In the City- Individuality”, Beijing, China

Conclusions:
Shi Xinning had already established his own style and the impact of the work had won him a strong reputation in Chinese art circles.

What to Do Next…
If you want any information about Shi Xinning or looking for his paintings please visit us on

Reading sunglasses turn you as chic as celebrities

Do you need a pair of reading sunglasses? You may ask: what? Is there any reading sunglasses anyway? My answer is absolute YES! Reading sunglasses are sorts of sunnies with prescribed lenses. Reading sunglasses can do every kind of work reading eyeglasses can do. As we all know, spring always is a season for every fahionista to show off their special aesthetics. Therefore, stylish reading sunglasses are just the right items for elder trend setters with severe vision problem to make fashion statement .

Fashion week and shows invariably serve as a clear clue to fashion ideas for our ordinary people. A host of dazzling trends in sunglasses are flying off the shelves these days. Elderly people also can draw a clue from those modish celebrities. As the old saying goes, there is no age boundary in fashion circle. Who ever said that the gray army can not wear reading sunglasses as chic as young ladies and gentlemen?

Thankfully, this season, we have got several pairs of chic reading sunglasses which are especially wearable. As there is classic, thus, there are classic retro reading sunglasses. All caps are appropriate to describe the cool, classic, chic and vibrant vintage reading sunglasses. While, besides retro reading sunglasses, rectangle reading sunglasses are also kind of chic sunglasses you just can not wait to put on. Rectangle reading sunglasses are formal and demure. It is the most IN style of reading sunglasses amongst fashionable elderly people.an>

You can discover tons of chic reading sunglasses through Firmoo.com. From retro reading sunglasses to novelty reading sunglasses, Firmoo definitely can offer you new outfit idea for the dashing season ahead. Whats more, all kinds of chic reading sunglasses in Firmoo will never cost you much. You can find a wide range of cheap eyeglasses or cheap sunglasses with chic style there.

Reluctant Celebrities

Every once in a while the media come across people who shy away from the fame and the glamour that is bestowed on them, they dont crave for the limelight that 9 out of 10 people amongst the rich and the famous would, stardom is something that just happened on the way to achieving what they wanted to. Their ultimate aim wasnt being glamorous and well known but earning fame in the field they chose. They are called reluctant celebrities and sometimes we at the media accidentally stumble upon such stars who dont like the unwanted attention and the poking and prying into their lives. Actually come to think of it there are quite a few celebrities who like their stardom till a certain limit beyond which they guard their privacy fiercely. We at entertainment news will get you updates on the so called reluctant celebrities too, celebrities who lead guarded lives away from the glare of the media. Entertainment news is different because we would get you news of even those celebrities who actually did something worthwhile to earn the fame and the fortune. This isnt only about run of the mill celebs like Katie Price whod do anything to secure the attention of the newspapers and the shutterbugs or even Kevin Federline, Britney Spears ex husband who loved to bask in the glory of his wifes past musical fortunes. Entertainment news shall get you stories on the celebrities from the literary world too, the ones who shut themselves up for months altogether to produce one masterpiece after another. Entertainment news shall give you valuable entertainment news too.

Who can forget Ernest Hemingway, nicknamed “Papa” because he was also a part of the community known as the expatriate community in Paris that was moreover known as “the lost generation”. Leading the colorful life that he did which included four marriages and a number of divorces the writer could not help but grab the attention of the media even if he did not want to. However his work spoke volumes of his talent as a littrateur as he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 for his contribution to the world of English literature. His gruesome death at the end evoked the inquisitiveness of the media still more as he ended his own life in a bizarre fashion. Thus Black Entertainment News shall get you all the news of such reluctant celebrities who like living away from the clutches of the media. We shall also get you stories of past celebrities like Ernest Hemingway who in their time were the favorites of the media. The Black Entertainment News shall also enlighten about the latest in tinsel town. Extra Entertainment News shall get you news from the sidelines of the entertainment industry.

Testing instrument manufacturer 2

Testing instrument manufacturer As the name indicates testing it is an assessment intended to measure the respondents or to check the abilities of the material which has been under taken for testing, and testing instruments which are developed and manufactured by the Ducom company is one of the best testing instruments developers across the world. Most of the academies and industries are using our ducom testing or measuring instruments. In order to verify the present condition of a machine or materials which are under taken for testing these instruments are very helpful. More than 2000 laboratories use our testing instruments for their research and projects across the global. Ducom manufactures the test instruments on which you can have trust for high technologies and for robust designs. And research and development groups are working on the same house of new and innovative technologies and for the test methods to bring the state of art characterization techniques to research labs, academies and for the industries. Ducom has few advantages like it has no capital investments on expertise, less man power requirement, no training requirements, no maintenance costs, it has excellent security and reporting. And we understand all kind of test requirements requested by the customers and we offer much innovative test option for fulfilling the requirements of the customers, such as: Standard tests Basic development tests Intermediate development tests Advanced development tests Ducom manufactured products by application are: Abrasion (two & three body): It is the Wearing down or rubbing away or removal of the superficial layers of the solid surface by friction against another rough surface. Pin/Ball on Disk Tribometers Two Body Abrasion Tribometer Abrasion Tester Fretting Wear Tribometer Reciprocating Friction Monitor (Automotive) Multi Specimen Tribometer Erosion: It is the gradual destruction or reduction in the size, extent or the Wearing away of the solid surface. Slurry Erosion Tribometer Air Jet Erosion Tribometer Slurry Jet Erosion Tribometer Surface, Coatings and Bulk Scratch Tribometer Ball Indentation Hardness Tribometer Fretting Wear Tribometer Bio-tribology: It is the study of Friction, Wear and Lubrication within the body. Ring on Plate Wear Tribometer Fretting Wear Tribometer Pin on Disk Tribometer Tribo-Corrosion: It is the material degradation process due to the combined effect of corrosion and wear. Fretting Wear Tribometer Pin on Disk Tribometer Lubricant & Fuels Four Ball Tribometer OK Load Tribometer (Timken OK Load) Lubricant Load Bearing Capacity Tribometer Fatigue Roller on Roller Tribometer Rotating Beam Fatigue Tribometer Thermal Cycling Furnace Bearings Journal Bearing Demonstration Apparatus High Load, High Speed Journal Bearing Tester Oscillatory Journal Bearing Tribometer For more information on Testing instrument manufacturer you can visit

Ways To Be Truly Artistic

Many people I know believe that in order to be truly artistic a person has to be an artist. They must paint, draw or take brilliant photographs to have artistic talent. While These traits may make someone an artist, I believe that it takes something entirely different to be artistic. It is possible for literally anyone to live in ways that are artistic.

One of the most important aspects of being an artistic person is to be confident in yourself. Lack of self-confidence does not get anyone very far in living creatively. Look for positive qualities about yourself and dwell on those. If you think you are good at a particular activity you should practice it to become even better.

Think about the things you love to do most. I suggest that you can be artistic doing just about anything. Whether you love to sew, cook, or play soccer, you can do things in a way that is artistic and intriguing.

One of my favorite things to do is garden. I used to not think much about the way that I arranged or tended my garden. However, recently I have begun to see gardening in a whole new way. I have realized that I can arrange my flowers and plants in creative ways. I can care for them with tenderness and help them to grow to their highest potential. I have learned that being artistic is more about perspective than it is about what is actually being done.

Being artistic is all about seeing the world creatively and allowing yourself to do the things you enjoy and enjoy the things you do. Consider how you can do your favorite things in new ways. Think about how preparing a meal can become more than just cooking food. Look for ways to incorporate beauty and fine detail into your food and into your presentation. Being artistic is about going a step further than what is typical. If you love to play a sport, look for ways to play that sport with energy and grace. Almost anyone can hit a volleyball over a net, but few people can do it in a way that looks unique and graceful.

You will never be artistic in anything unless you are enjoying yourself. Don’t take life too seriously, but instead, look for ways to have fun and relax no matter what the circumstance.

To Be On The Safe Side, Insure Your Musical Instruments

Life would be meaningless without music – one statement to which all music lovers would agree because there is no one in this world who does like music as all have their own taste of music, As far as professional musicians are concerned, it enliven them and they produce rhythm from their heart that touches the listeners. There are too many genres of music to satisfy every music lover.

With so many genres of music, there are several numbers of special music instruments that produce different musical sounds. Musicians of all genres admire and are possessive about their musical instruments immensely. It is through the musical instruments that they produce heartfelt music, which also helps them make a living. Musical ornaments been the primary tools of revenue, must be covered under insurance as musical instruments do not come for cheap. Professionally designed instruments demand extra care because most instruments are fragile and prone to get damaged easily if they are dropped or mishandled or destroyed or stolen. Therefore, pricey instruments must be insured if they are not. Insurance for musicians should be one of the top concerns in order to be on the safe side. Once the instrument is stolen, professional musicians would be out of work for the simple reason if they get robbed and, cannot afford new instruments. There have been many cases recently when musicians have been robbed and have lost their precious instruments – to top it all, they were not even insured. Therefore, to avoid such a tragedy, the very first step musicians must take after they purchase a musical instrument is to insure it. For which, a special insurer is required. Music schools, instrument makers or professional music dealers will be able to recommend reliable agents for music instrument insurance. While your search is on, you must also work with an insurance agent and find out the estimated value of your instruments to understand and work on premiums and other legal requirements. Once you find a reliable agent, you will be aware of various other conditions, such as, instruments in the six-figure range requires appraisals from experts.

The price of your instrument will decide what insurance policy to choose from. For instance, instruments that are rare or high-priced would be costly to insure. Delicate instruments like harp, double basses, guitar, viola, and more must be insured since their repair is also too costly. At times, proper insurance covers devaluation and replacement both which can be profitable to musicians in most cases. Instrument insurance will cover your worry of losing your valuable music instruments and let you create wonderful music with a tension-free mind. Insurance for musicians and/or insurance for bands are a safety measure professionals must opt for.

Audio Mastering and Voice Over Recording – Features of Music Studio

Many people have a dream of becoming a singer or a band member. They want to enter in the music industry, share their talent and show their passion for music. However, the first question that comes in their mind is “where should I start?” Obviously, they should create their own music or sample of composition. Generally, it takes a lot of time as people need to practice more to present their best one with great lyrics and wonderful beats. Music studio is a best place to practice as it will help in giving the best output than home recording studio. Some studios also offer specialising services like mixing of voice, voice over recording, audio mastering, etc.

There are a few things that everyone should consider while choosing the best music studio to get completely satisfying results. An important part of the recording procedure is audio mastering. Getting music mastered by the right person is more important to increase the overall quality of the music. The qualified engineers, who have learned song mastering in their own way and time, are responsible for editing and fine finishing to the recorded music. You will understand the importance of audio mastering once you hear final recording done by professional and the recording done by you. Nowadays, audio mastering and voice over recording is no longer expensive, due to the evolution of digital mixers and digital mastering software. They have made visiting a music studio more affordable and setting up one easier. Despite the digital manipulation, it is still a lengthy process and should be done by only editing the music. For getting perfection, years of practice must be needed. That’s why, it is important to choose the right recording place with an established reputation for producing quality recording through qualified on-site recording engineer.

While choosing a music studio, you should also consider equipment like mixing console, studio monitors, multi-track recorder, and others that are required to do a good job. Many studios use the utmost quality analogue and digital softwares to finalise your mixes and to give it the commercial standard. There are many studios available in Melbourne, which provide the great services. You can find the best one by browsing the internet or taking help of your friends who have already practiced at one of them.

The best music studios are those which offer audio mastering and all the professional touches needed to make a dramatic difference to the impact and quality of your recording. Having a recording done at a professionally mastered recording studio raises the possibilities of success to a great extent, by understanding the potential your recording has and finalising it with voice over recording.

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